Trains’ braking technology raises debate on crew sizes


The railroad industry is hoping this year’s scheduled completion of an automatic railroad braking system will bolster its argument to reduce the number of crew members in most trains from two to one. But labor groups argue that such a reduction would make trains more accident-prone.

The $15 billion braking system, known as positive train control, is aimed at reducing human error by automatically stopping trains in certain situations, such as when they’re in danger of colliding, derailing because of excessive speed, entering tracks under maintenance or traveling the wrong direction because of switching mistakes.


“Technology, in the form of positive train control, does a lot of the work — virtually all of the work — that a conductor does sitting in the cab,” said Union Pacific Chief Executive Officer Lance Fritz.

For that reason, the industry says there is no need for more than one crew member to operate a train — a key issue in contract talks with railroad unions that began in November. Railroads tried unsuccessfully to reduce crew size in previous contract talks.

“I’m 100% confident that we would not go down this path if we weren’t certain that fewer people in the cab of the locomotive had no impact on safety,” Fritz said.

Labor groups, however, argue that conductors provide a crucial safety backup in the cab to help monitor conditions and the train. The groups also say the automatic braking system isn’t perfect.

“Positive train control only keeps trains from wrecking in certain circumstances. There is still a need for a second man in the crew,” said Ron Kaminkow, an Amtrak engineer who serves as general secretary of the labor advocacy group Railroad Workers United.

During a cross-country rail journey, the engineer is at the train’s controls, calling out signals and taking directives from dispatchers. All of that is built into positive train control, according to Fritz.

But Kaminkow, who worked for freight railroads earlier in his career, said having a conductor in the cab helps guard against fatigue when engineers and conductors are working irregular shifts with early start times or are facing inclement weather.


The National Transportation Safety Board says more than 150 train crashes since 1969 could have been prevented by positive train control, which was required under a 2008 law enacted after a commuter train collided head-on with a freight train near Los Angeles, killing 25 people and injuring more than 100.

The braking system uses GPS, wireless communication and computers to monitor train position and speed, and it can give commands to engineers. Regulators say the system could have prevented the December 2017 derailment of an Amtrak passenger train in Washington state that killed three passengers and injured 57 people.

The automatic braking system is scheduled to be in place on most rail lines by the end of the year. The major freight railroads have the system in place on most of their networks and are now working to ensure all their systems work with the systems on other railroads.

FILE – In this April 26, 2018, file photo a CSX Transportation locomotive pulls a train of tank cars across a bridge on the Hudson River along the edge of Bear Mountain State Park near Fort Montgomery, N.Y. This year’s scheduled completion of a $15 billion automatic railroad braking system will bolster the industry’s argument for eliminating one of the two crew members in most locomotives. But labor groups argue that single-person crews would make trains more accident prone. (AP Photo/Julie Jacobson, File)

Railroads may decide to keep two crew members on some trains if they know there will be a need to change switches or split out groups of cars at destinations along the route, so it’s not immediately clear how many of the thousands of conductor jobs could be eliminated.

Right now with two crew members, if a train has to stop because a problem has been detected, a conductor can walk the length of the train to help identify and address the problem while the engineer remains in the cab. A conductor can also split a train apart if a crossing needs to be opened for emergency responders.


The solution railroads have proposed for that kind of work is to have conductors stationed in trucks along the route who can respond to problems.

“Conductors play an important role outside of the locomotive, and their work still needs to be accomplished by someone on the ground,” Fritz said.

Still, it’s not clear how long it might take for help to arrive on remote stretches of rail lines in rugged, rural territory. Railroad safety consultant Sheldon Lustig worries about the prospect of long delays when a single worker has to wait for backup. It could mean rail crossings being blocked for long periods of time, which hurts emergency response times in affected communities.

“I think there is a trade-off, and it leans in favor of having at least two people in the cab,” Lustig said.

The railroads’ argument to use a single worker, however, is bolstered by federal regulators’ decision not to address the issue. Last year, the Federal Railroad Administration dropped its proposal to require two-person crews on freight railroads because it said the safety data didn’t support such a rule.

The major railroads and several safety experts believe that operating trains with just one person can be safe. Already, dozens of short-line railroads operate some trains with a single crew member, although their operations can differ greatly from the major freight railroads.

“The data is clear: The safety benefits of having the second person are trivial,” DePaul University professor Joseph Schwieterman said.

Once railroads successfully implement the braking system and can stop trains remotely, the advances might open the door to one day operating trains entirely by remote control or with robots, said David Clarke, director of the University of Tennessee’s Center for Transportation Research. Existing remote-control systems at U.S. railroads are currently limited to use in rail yards.

“I think it’s debatable whether there are safety issues. One person can operate the train, and there are ways to deal with the alertness factors,” Clarke said. “My viewpoint is we could operate the train remotely, and that may be where we are going.”

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